Anne Frank, a girl who wrote one of the most famous and best-selling books of all time – her diary. Witness of the time trough the eyes of a bright girl – a heartwarming story of growing up, love, desires, dreams, fears, hopes written in the most terrifying period of human history.
Here are some interesting facts concerning Anne, her life and her Diary.
1. Anne was a nickname
Anne’s full name was Annelies Marie Frank. She was born on June 12th 1929 in Frankfurt, Germany to parents Otto and Edith. She had an older sister Margot.
The Frank family went into hiding after Margot was summoned to a work camp in 1942. They spent two years hiding in the Secret Annex above Otto’s offices.
The Franks were soon joined by Hermann and Auguste van Pels with their son Peter (the boy Anne was to fall in love with), and Fritz Pfeffer, a German dentist.
Germany – 1979/05/17
50th birth anniversary of Anne Frank (1929-45), Nazi concentration camp victim and diary writer
60 Pf. – German pfennig
“How wonderful it is that nobody need wait a single moment before starting to improve the world.”
2. Anne’s diary was a 13th birthday present
Anne received the diary for which she became famous on June 12th 1942, and began writing in it on June 14th. It was actually a red checked autograph book for which she decided would be used as a journal.
While in hiding, Anne hoped that she would one day be able to return to school, study the history of art and become fluent in different languages. She also wanted to become “a journalist, and later on a famous writer”. It’s not a surprise she switched to two notebooks after the autograph book was full, finally resorting to about 360 pages of paper.
Netherlands – 1980/04/25
Family portrait of Anne Frank (series Occupation and liberation)
60 c – Dutch cent
Anne’s 14th and 15th birthdays were spent in the annex but she was still given presents by other residents of the hiding place and their helpers on the outside world. Among these presents were several books as well as a poem written by her father part of which she copied out in her diary.
“In spite of everything, I still believe that people are really good at heart.”
3. Anne wrote most of her diary in the form of letters to a person named Kitty
Anne wrote two versions of her diary. The first version was written in the red autograph book she received for her birthday with most of the entries adressed to Kitty.
Some believe Kitty is Anne’s friend, Käthe “Kitty” Egyedi. Others think that Anne borrowed the name from her favorite book series, Joop ter Heul, in which the title character’s best friend was named Kitty.
It’s worth mentioning that early letters were also addressed to Conny, Marianne, Emmy, and Pop.
Anne rewrote her diary in 1944 after hearing a call on the radio for people to save their war-time diaries in order to help document the suffering of the Nazi occupation once war was over.
“You can always, always give something, even if it’s only kindness!”
4. Anne Frank spent a total of two years and 35 days in hiding
During that time, she was unable to see the sky, feel the rain or sun on her skin basically spend any amount of time outdoors.
The residents of the annex were arrested on 4 August 1944. It has been thought that someone called the German Security Police but the identity of this caller has never been confirmed. A new theory suggests that the Nazis may in fact have discovered the annex by accident while investigating reports of fraud and illegal employment.
Israel – 1988/04/19
The 43rd Anniversary of the Death of Anne Frank (Concentration Camp Victim)
60 Ag – agorot
The residents of the annex were first taken to Westerbork transit camp in the Netherlands, followed by the notorious Auschwitz concentration camp in Poland. At this point the men and women were separated – Anne staying with her mother and sister. A few months later the two girls were taken to the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp in Germany. Both Anne and Margot are believed to have contracted typhus and died around the same time, just a few weeks before the camp was liberated.
The exact date of Anne’s death is not known but it is thought she died in either February or March of 1945. Margot was 19, and Anne only 15.
Otto was the only known surviving resident of the Annex and of the Frank family. He was held at Auschwitz until its liberation in January 1945.
“I don’t think of all the misery but of the beauty that still remains.”
5. Anne’s diary was first published on 25 June 1947
After the arrest of the Annex’s residents, Anne’s diary was saved by Miep Gies, a trusted friend of the Frank family who had helped them during their time in hiding. Gies gave the diary to Otto in July 1945 following confirmation of Anne’s death. Gies later said that if she had known what was inside, she would have destroyed the writings because they incriminated everyone who helped hide the residents of the Annex. Otto Frank finally persuaded her to read it when the book was in its second printing.
Anne didn’t just keep a diary. She wrote tales and planned to publish a book about her time in the Secret Annex. Respecting Anne’s wishes, Otto managed to have the diary published with the first edition combining versions A and B in the Netherlands on 25 June 1947 under the title The Secret Annex.
Seventy years later, the diary has been translated into as many as 70 languages and more than 30 million copies have been published.
Even though it tells a very important tale, the diary is often banned and challenged.
There are passages in the diary in which Anne expresses curiosity about her anatomy in a curious and sometimes joking way – a completely normal thing for a girl her age to do – but still upsetting some. Also, a school in Alabama tried to block Anne’s diary from schools in 1983 because it was “a real downer.”
Israel – 1988/04/19
In the end of this article, filled with facts and quotes, we leave you with a beautiful, but a heartbreaking quote from Anne herself. She truly was a writer.
“What a wonderful thought it is that some of the best days of our lives haven’t even happened yet!”
His code is 007, and his name is Bond, James Bond. He’s an intelligence officer in the Secret Intelligence Service, also known as MI6. It all started in 1953 when Ian Fleming published “Casino Royale”, in the first of his novels. Today, we’ll take a look at Royal Mail stamps issued to mark the 25th, and latest, James Bond movie “No Time To Die”.
James Bond Movies
“No Time To Die” is a 25th movie in the series. We’ll see, Daniel Craig once more fighting a vicious villain(s).
Having this in mind, let’s remind ourselves of some of the most important titles in this series. There are 25 Eon (EON Productions) movies, and 2 non-Eon movies – “Casino Royale” (1967), “Never Say Never Again” (1983).
Lotus Esprit Submarine – “The Spy Who Loved Me!
Little Nellie – “You only Live Twice”
Bell-Textron Jet Pack – “Thunderball”
Aston Martin DB5 – “Skyfall”
Please notice how is “007” used on perforation
We’ll focus on Eon movies here. It all started in 1962 with “Dr. No” and continued until today with the following titles:
- “From Russia with Love” (1963)
- “Goldfinger” (1964)
- “Thunderball” (1965)
- “You Only Live Twice” (1967)
- “On Her Majesty’s Secret Service” (1969)
- “Diamonds Are Forever” (1971)
- “Live and Let Die” (1973)
- “The Man with the Golden Gun” (1974)
- “The Spy Who Loved Me” (1977)
- “Moonraker” (1979)
- “For Your Eyes Only” (1981)
- “Octopussy” (1983)
- “A View to a Kill” (1985)
- “The Living Daylights” (1987)
- “Licence to Kill” (1989)
- “GoldenEye” (1995)
- “Tomorrow Never Dies” (1997)
- “The World Is Not Enough” (1999)
- “Die Another Day” (2002)
- “Casino Royale” (2006)
- “Quantum of Solace” (2008)
- “Skyfall” (2012)
- “Spectre” (2015)
- “No Time to Die” (2020).
“You only live twice: Once when you are born and once when you look death in the face” – Sean Connery, You Only Live Twice
“Well, I like to do some things the old-fashioned way.” — Daniel Craig, Skyfall
James Bond Actors
A number of actors portrayed James Bond. Some of them had more success and some had less. I guess you would know some without taking a look at this list, and you’ve probably haven’t heard of others. So, let’s see the list.
Sean Connery was the first James Bond and he appeared in 5 Eon files (Dr. No, From Russia with Love, Goldfinger, Thunderball, You Only Live Twice, Diamonds Are Forever) and 1 Non-Eon film (Never Say Never Again).
David Niven appeared in 1967 in the Non-Eon movie Casino Royale.
George Lazenby had also had one appearance in 1969 On Her Majesty’s Secret Service.
Casino Royale, GoldenEye, The Living Daylights,
Live and Let Die, On Her Majesty’s Secret Service, Goldfinger
“Mine’s Bond – James Bond.” ― Daniel Craig, Casino Royale (“Bond. James Bond.” — Sean Connery, Dr. No)
“The World Is Not Enough” ― George Lazenby, On Her Majesty’s Secret Service
We could watch Roger Moore, from 1973 to 1985, in 7 James Bond movies: Live and Let Die, The Man with the Golden Gun, The Spy Who Loved Me, Moonraker, For Your Eyes Only, Octopussy, A View to a Kill.
He was succeeded by Timothy Dalton in 1986. He lasted until 1994 and appeared in only 2 movies The Living Daylights, and Licence to Kill.
Casino Royale, GoldenEye, The Living Daylights,
Live and Let Die, On Her Majesty’s Secret Service, Goldfinger
After that we could watch Pierce Brosnan from 1994 until 2004 in 4 movies: GoldenEye, Tomorrow Never Dies, The World Is Not Enough, and Die Another Day.
The last and the current Bond is Daniel Craig. As already mentioned, we’ll be able to see him soon in No Tim To Die. Before that, he had 4 more appearances in Casino Royale, Quantum of Solace, Skyfall, Spectre.
“Surround yourself with human beings, my dear James. They are easier to fight for than principles.” ― Daniel Craig, Casino Royale
“A martini. Shaken, not stirred.” — Sean Connery, Goldfinger
Who is your favourite Bond? And in which movie? Are you nervous to put your hands on these stamps? Tell us in the comments below.
Vincent van Gogh is one of the most interesting artists in history. Today we’ll take a look at stamps related to Vincent and his artwork as well as mention some important facts and listen to his words.
Vincent van Gogh – Early Life
Vincent Willem van Gogh was born 30 March 1853 in Zundert, Netherlands and passed away on 29 July 1890, in Auvers-sur-Oise, France. He’s a famous post-impressionist artist who created around 860 oil paintings (total around 2100 artworks). Most of his artworks were landscapes, still lifes, portraits, and self-portraits.
Famous People – Vincent Van Gogh (1853-1890)
30 ₣ – French
“If one is master of one thing and understands one thing well, one has at the same time, insight into and understanding of many things.”
“I can very well do without God both in my life and in my painting, but I cannot, suffering as I am, do without something which is greater than I am, which is my life, the power to create.”
“If you hear a voice within you say ‘you cannot paint,’ then by all means paint, and that voice will be silenced.”
Before he started painting, he tried many different career paths – art dealer, school teacher, preacher. Still, all of these attempts were unsuccessful. That is the reason why Vincent started painting relatively old, at the age of 27. If we take into account that he lived only until 37, he had only 10 productive years as a painter.
Stamp Day 1990: Postman Roulin by Vincent Van Gogh
14 fr – Belgian franc
“Painting is a faith, and it imposes the duty to disregard public opinion.”
“Even the knowledge of my own fallibility cannot keep me from making mistakes. Only when I fall do I get up again.”
“I put my heart and my soul into my work, and have lost my mind in the process.”
Most of the facts we know about Vincent originate from hundreds of letters he wrote. Some 800 letters were addressed to his brother Theo (actually 600 letters exchanges between the two of them), and his artist friends Paul Gaugin and Emile Bernard.
Human Rights – Van Gogh: The Prison Courtyard
UNO Geneva, 1990/11/16
0.35 Fr. – Swiss franc
“The fishermen know that the sea is dangerous and the storm terrible, but they have never found these dangers sufficient reason for remaining ashore.”
“Great things are done by a series of small things brought together.”
“Love many things, for therein lies the true strength, and whosoever loves much performs much, and can accomplish much, and what is done in love is done well.”
Vincent van Gogh’s 150th birthday
The Netherlands, 2003/01/02
0.39 € – Euro
1st row – Nuenen period
Drawing: Road Behind the Parsonage Garden. 1884 – Rijksmuseum Amsterdam
Painting: Autumn Landscape with Four Trees, 1885 – Kroller-Muller Museum
Painting: The Potato Eaters, 1885 – Van Gogh Museum,
Letter sketch: The Potato Eaters, 1885 – Van Gogh Museum
2nd row – Paris period
Drawing: Garden with Sunflowers, 1887 – Van Gogh Museum
Painting: Sunflowers, 1887 – Kroller-Muller Museum
Self-Portrait with Felt Hat, 1887/1888 – Van Gogh Museum
Drawing: Study for Self-portrait, 1887 – Van Gogh Museum
3rd row Arles period
Drawing: The Seated Zouave, 1888 – Van Gogh Museum
Painting: The Zouave, 1888 – Van Gogh Museum
Painting: Cafe Terrace on the `Place du Forum’ at Night, 1888 – Kroller-Muller Museum
Drawing: Cafe Terrace at Night, 1888 – Dallas Museum of Art
4th row – Saint-Remy period
Drawing: Trees with Ivy in the Garden of St. Paul’s Hospital in Saint-Remy, 1889 – Van Gogh Museum
Painting: Tree Trunks in Gross, 1890 – Kroller-Muller Museum
Painting: Almond Blossom, 1890 – Van Gogh Museum
Drawing: Garden of St. Paul’s Hospital in Saint-Remy, 1889 – Van Gogh Museum
5th row – Auvers-sur-Oise period
Drawing: Street in Anvers – Van Gogh Museum
Painting: View of Auvers, 1890 – Van Gogh Museum
Painting: Wheatfield with Crows, 1890 – Van Gogh Museum
Drawing: Crows, 1890 – The Whitworth Art Gallery, University of Manchester
“I see drawings and pictures in the poorest of huts and the dirtiest of corners.”
“One may have a blazing hearth in one’s soul and yet no one ever came to sit by it. Passers-by see only a wisp of smoke from the chimney and continue on their way.”
“Poetry surrounds us everywhere, but putting it on paper is, alas, not so easy as looking at it.”
Carabinieri Cultural Protection Force 50 Years (2019) – The Gardener by Vincent van Gogh
B º – No Face Value
“It is not the language of painters but the language of nature which one should listen to, the feeling for the things themselves, for reality is more important than the feeling for pictures.”
“I experience a period of frightening clarity in those moments when nature is so beautiful. I am no longer sure of myself, and the paintings appear as in a dream.”
“In spite of everything I shall rise again: I will take up my pencil, which I have forsaken in my great discouragement, and I will go on with my drawing.”
“As we advance in life it becomes more and more difficult, but in fighting the difficulties the inmost strength of the heart is developed.”
Poverty and Death
As it was often the case with many artists, he gained more popularity after he passed away, than he had during his lifetime. It’s actually considered that during his lifetime he managed to sell only one of his paintings – “Red Vineyards Near Arles”. Not surprisingly, he experienced financial difficulties, and that combined with his mental problems resulted in well-known cutting his ear and later shooting himself in the chest on 27 July 1890. He passed away 2 days after that event. Needless to say, prices for his paintings today are in millions of dollars.
Treasures of German Museums – “Field of Poppies” by Vincent van Gogh
155 ct – Euro cent
“I am still far from being what I want to be, but with God’s help I shall succeed.”
“The more I think about it, the more I realize there is nothing more artistic than to love others.”
“I feel that there is nothing more truly artistic than to love people.”
If we take into account that he had only 10 productive years and kept painting, although without having profit out of it, we can say that he was one of the few great and true artists that ever lived.
Attending a hobby-related event is always something special. If you want to plan in advance, you should know some important dates. In order to do that, today, we’ll try to give a short overview of upcoming philatelic & numismatic (stamps & coins) events in 2020. It0s simply hard to list them all, so we’re list the ones we find interesting.
Australia – Canberra Stampshow 2020 – March 13-15 (Fri & Sat 10am-6pm; Sun 10am-3:30pm)
If you’ll be close to Australia during March, visiting Canberra Stampshow sounds like a good idea. This will be the 21st edition of the show.
“Canberra Stampshow 2020, the twenty-first Biennial National Philatelic Convention staged by the Philatelic Society of Canberra Inc, will be held at the Hellenic Club Woden, Canberra on 13-15 March 2020.
The main theme of the exhibition will be a celebration of Pacific Exploration including the 250th anniversary of Captain James Cook voyage to the Pacific including his visit to New Zealand and the Eastern Coast of Australia.”
You can find all related details at the following link: http://canberrastamps.org/canberra-2020/
The United Kingdom – LONDON 2020 International Stamp Exhibition – May 2-9
The history of stamp exhibitions in the UK is very rich. That’s not so unexpected because we’re talking about the country which issued the first postage stamp. First London Philatelic Exhibition was held in 1890, while the first International Philatelic Exhibition was held in 1906.
“There will be a major stamp exhibition at the Business Design Centre in Islington, London from Saturday 2 May 2020 until Saturday 9 May 2020. This will be an International, granted FIP Patronage, with competitive classes in Championship, Traditional, Postal History, Thematic, Revenue, Postal Stationery, Aerophilately, Open, Picture Postcards, One Frame, Modern, Literature and Youth.”
You can find all related details at the following link: http://www.london2020.co/
Italy – VERONAFIL 2020 – May 22-24 (Fri 10am-6pm, Sat 9am-6pm, Sun 9am-1pm)
This is one more exhibition with a lot of history behind it. You can visit 134th edition in May, or 135th in November 2020.
“It takes place every year in May and November in the Verona fair.
The exhibition represents an important commercial change to traders and collectors, enhanced by various cultural and commemorative events.
The exhibition spreads over an of 11.000 sq.m. area and is divided into the following sectors:
– Various objects
– Telekarte, Kinder”
You can find all related details at the following link: http://www.veronafil.it
The United Kingdom – JRS Fairs – The Stafford Stamp Show – June 19-20, 2020 (Fri 10 am-5 pm, Sat 10 am-4 pm)
“The Stafford Stamp Show is the Major Stamp & Postal History fair in the Midlands with 50 national and international dealers attending you can view details of the dealers attending by following the dealers link above, the photo of the venue on the right is the Ingestre suite at the Staffordshire Country Showground and the location can be seen by following the links above, the location link takes you to the Showground website where you can view all the activities of the showground and the location with views of the Ingestre Suite or alternatively view the location map below.
Our other stamp fairs in the Midlands and Cheshire can be viewed in the same way by following the links.
We welcome you to visit our stamp fairs and in particular the Stafford Stamp show where we hope you can find some of the items you are looking for.”
You can find all related details at the following link: http://jrs-stamp-shows.co.uk
USA – Great American Stamp Show 2020 – August 20-23
As you could conclude from its name, this will be one large & great stamp show hosted by, among others, the American Philatelic Society. You can view all their events by taking a look at their online calendar here.
“Co-hosted by the American Philatelic Society, the American Topical Association and the American First Day Cover Society”
“Join us in Hartford, Connecticut for the largest national stamp and postal history show in the country. Whether you are a new or experienced collector, the Great American Stamp Show packs four days of shopping, seminars, exhibits, education, and fun for all ages. (Bring your most comfortable shoes, you will need them!) The Great American Stamp Show brings together stamp collectors from all over the world to share their ideas on the future of the hobby, the chance to reconnect with old friends and make new ones! The free event is co-sponsored by the United States Postal Service. The USPS will also have a large retail presence offering a selection of current U.S. stamps for sale.”
You can find all related details at the following link: https://stamps.org/great-american-stamp-show
Austria – GMUNDEN 2020 – August 28-30
This is also one of the older stamp events, starting way back in 1937.
Venue: Toscana Congress – Exhibition Center of Gmunden Austria Sponsored by BMSV-GMUNDEN (the Briefmarken-Und Münzensammlerverein Gmunden) Gmunden will be the first European city hosting for 3 consecutive years a FEPA Exhibition.
You can find all related details at the following link: http://www.bmsv-gmunden.at
United Kingdom – Poole and Bournemouth Stamp & Postcard Club Annual Stamp Fair – September 5, 2020 (Sat 10 am-4 pm)
The Poole Club Annual Stamp Fair shall take place at Upton Community Centre, Poole (10-4).
You can find all related details at the following link: http://www.philatelyinbournemouth.co.uk/poole-club.html
The United Kingdom – Salisbury Stamp and Postcard Show – October 16-17, 2020 (Fri 10 am-5 pm, Sat 10 am-3 pm)
“The Salisbury Stamp Show is back, but now with Postcards, and is one of the largest two-day shows in the south of the country. This show will be held at the Five Rivers Leisure Centre, Hulse Rd, Salisbury Wiltshire, SP1 3NR.”
You can find all related details at the following link: http://www.salisburystampshow.co.uk/
Finding the philatelic show, you’ll attend is never easy because you need to manage your time in such a manner you have time to visit the show. We hope this article helped you
The Soviet Union launched Sputnik 1 (Спутник-1) on 4 October 1957. This was the first artificial Earth satellite and it spent 3 months in orbit. On 4 January 1958, it burned during entering Earth’s atmosphere. Today we’ll take a look at top 10 most important Sputnik 1-related facts.
#1 Sergei Korolev
Sergei Pavlovich Korolev is one of the most important scientists in the history of space exploration working as a lead Soviet rocket engineer. He was one of those brilliant minds in the history of mankind. It’s enough to say that he had almost complete Soviet space program coordinated in his head. He worked as a rocket engineer and is “responsible” for the development of R-7 Rocket, Sputnik 1, Sputnik 2 (Laika) and many other achievements. In order to avoid his possible assassination (by the United States) his name was kept in secrecy until his death in 1966. He was called simply Chief Designer (Glavny Konstruktor). I’ll use his quotes through this article.
“There is no such thing as an unsolvable problem.” – Sergei Korolev
#2 R-7 Rocket
This rocket was (and still is) the working horse of the Soviet/Russian space program. It was developed to be a ballistic missile (ICMB). And it was one, but a pretty impractical one. There were many reasons for that from the design (four strap-on boosters around the central rocket), a minimum of 7 hours to prepare it for launch, no need for such a huge rocket (nuclear warheads became smaller). On the other hand, it was perfect for a space mission.
USSR – 1957/11/05
#3 Nikita Khrushchev & R-7
Nikita Khrushchev (Soviet leader from 1953 to 1964) needed a weapon that would ensure the USA can’t win a nuclear war with the first strike. The decision had been made to develop an ICBM that could carry a nuclear payload. The result of that development was the R-7 rocket which could deliver a 3000 kg payload onto a target over 6400 kilometers. Satellite launch definitely was not a priority.
#4 Sergei Korolev & Nikita Khrushchev
On the other hand, Sergei Korolev had different plans for R-7. He was aware of its capabilities and a chance he has at that moment, so he simply bypassed his superiors and went directly to Nikita. Sergei managed to convince him that launching a satellite would be of great value for the propaganda in the Soviet Union. Nikita agreed and the stage was set.
#5 Sputnik 1
“Do you know what ‘Sputnik’ means in Russian? ‘Travelling companion’. I looked it up in a dictionary not long ago. Kind of a strange coincidence if you think about it. I wonder why the Russians gave their satellite that strange name. It’s just a poor little lump of metal, spinning around the Earth.” – Haruki Murakami
The original plan was to launch a much larger satellite, equipped with a bunch of instruments, to the orbit. The problem was the slow development of that satellite. That would delay the launch and that increased the risk that the project could be abandoned (politics and/or military) or that the United States could do go first and win the race. Therefore, the simple satellite had been developed.
Sputnik 1, was 53 cm in diameter and had 83.6 kg. It was a metal sphere with 4 antennas, radio transmitter, and 3 batteries. The transmitter transmitted “beeps” on two different frequencies.
The 5th Anniversary of Launching of Sputnik 1
USSR – 1962/10/04
#6 Sputnik 1 – Construction
Almost everything related to this project was hasty and so was the construction of Sputnik 1. There were no formal drawings of the design. Technicians build it accordingly verbal instructions and sketches. And engineers also went with ideas along the way.
#7 – Sputnik 1 – Polishing
It was a space mission, but a little bit of propaganda can’t hurt as well. Therefore, the metal sphere was properly polished to look like a bright silver star. The final stage of the R-7 rocket, the one that also went to orbit, was polished properly for the same reason.
Everything was prepared to launch that was scheduled for October 6, from the what is today known as Baikonur Cosmodrome. Still, the launch happened 2 days before. Korolev was informed that the USA will launch soon so he decided to go earlier. The launch itself was almost a complete failure because the rocket had a problem with Block G booster’s main engine. That causes problems with the stability of the rocket a few seconds after launch. Fortunately, that was compensated and the launch was successful.
“I closed my eyes and listened carefully for the descendants of Sputnik, even now circling the earth, gravity their only tie to the planet. Lonely metal souls in the unimpeded darkness of space, they meet, pass each other, and part, never to meet again. No words passing between them. No promises to keep.” – Haruki Murakami
The 50th Anniversary of Launching of Sputnik 1
Romania – 2007/10/04
The first signal from Sputnik had been received almost an hour after launch. It orbited the Earth every 98 minutes, completed 1440 orbits and traveled 70 million kilometers. And also flew over the USA 7 times a day. The battery lasted for 23 days during which “beep” could be heard around the World. 3 months after launch, it burned while entering Earth’s atmosphere.
“The Soviet Union has become the seacoast of the universe.” – Sergei Korolev
“The way to the stars is open.” – Sergei Korolev
“The first man-made satellite to orbit the earth was named Sputnik. The first living creature in space was Laika. The first rocket to the Moon carried a red flag. The first photograph of the far side of the Moon was made with a Soviet camera. If a man orbits the earth this year his name will be Ivan.” – John F. Kennedy
#10 And few more words from Korolev
“The further conquest of space will make it possible, for example, to create systems of satellites making daily revolutions around our planet at an altitude of some 40,000 kilometers, and to assure universal communications and the relaying of radio and television transmissions. Such an arrangement might prove more useful, economically, than the construction of radio-relay systems over the whole surface of the earth. The great accuracy of movement of these satellites will provide a reliable basis for solving navigational problems.” – Sergei Korolev
“In order for the United States to do the right things for the long term, it appears to be helpful for us to have the prospect of humiliation. Sputnik helped us fund good science – really good science: the semiconductor came out of it.” – Bill Gates
When in the Ancient World trading ships were first built, they enabled people to sail long distances to buy and sell goods. But those first ships were wooden with sails so the wind and waves could easily push them against the rocks and wreck them. And so, the need for something as a warning signal at sea arose. Today, we know those buildings as lighthouses.
“Lighthouses are endlessly suggestive signifiers of both human isolation and our ultimate connectedness to each other.” – Virginia Woolf
We all have an idea what a lighthouse is – a tower with a bright light at the top, located at an important place regarding navigation at sea. Lighthouses serve as a navigational aid and to warn boats of dangerous areas.
First lighthouses were actually provided by nature – sailors used landmarks such as glowing volcanoes to guide them. But it wasn’t long before people started building them and they have definitely come a long way since.
Below we bring you 5 important and interesting facts about lighthouses – maritime „road” signs.
THE FIRST MAN – MADE LIGHTHOUSE ISN’T THE OLDEST STILL STANDING MAN – MADE LIGHTHOUSE!
The first known lighthouse was the Pharos of Alexandria in today’s Egypt. Ptolemy I and his son Ptolemy II constructed it between 300 and 280 B.C. and it stood about 450 feet high.
This lighthouse was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. It was destroyed in stages by invaders and earthquakes by the 1300s.
A Byzantine eunuch spy has been responsible for the final destruction of the lighthouse of Alexandria while searching for hidden treasure.
Lighthouses of the Black Sea and Azov Sea (1982), Lighthouses of the Baltic Sea (1983) and Lighthouses of the Pacific Ocean (1984)
The world’s oldest existing lighthouse obviously isn’t the famous Pharos of Alexandria. It is the Tower of Hercules, a UNESCO World Heritage Site that marks the entrance of Spain‘s La Coruña harbor.
This lighthouse, which was erected in the first century, is still operational.
“The lighthouse does great service to humanity; yet it is the slave of those who trim the lamps.” – Alice Wellington Rollins
WHAT IS THE MOST FAMOUS LIGHTHOUSE YOU ASK?
The world’s most famous lighthouse in the world is also the first U.S. lighthouse to use electricity – the Statue of Liberty in New York Harbour. From its opening in 1886 until its deactivation as a lighthouse in 1902, its torch carried an electric light that was visible for 24 miles. The Statue’s current replacement torch, added in 1986, is a copper flame covered in 24K gold.
Brunsbüttel Mole 1, Westerheversand (2005/07/07)
Neuland, Hohe Weg (2006/08/10)
What’s interesting is that The Statue of Liberty was originally designed to look like as an Arab peasant located in Egypt and serve as a lighthouse for the Suez Canal.
BEING A LIGHTHOUSE KEEPER WASN’T A GLAMUROUS, ROMANTIC, WELL PAID JOB (we imagine it to be)
These days, lighthouses are run by machines and remote monitoring. Automatic sensors and radio signals are used to communicate with the ships. But when the technology was not so advanced the lighthouses were run by lighthouse keepers.
Originally lighthouses were lit with open fires, later progressing through candles, lanterns and electric lights. So, before the days of electricity, the keepers had to light the lamp at sunset and put it out at sunrise. Considering the conditions, they had to work in we can definitely say that the keepers were among the most dedicated civil servants, often performing in extreme hardship.
Portland Head, Cape Elizabeth, Maine
Portsmouth Harbor, New Castle, New Hampshire
Point Judith, Narragansett, Rhode Island
New London Harbor, New London, Connecticut
Boston Harbor, Boston, Massachusetts
So, were they paid well? Not exactly.
Keepers were paid a lower middle-class wage. George Worthylake, the first lighthouse keeper in the US served from 1716 until 1718 when he drowned, along with his wife and daughter, when returning to the lighthouse. He received 50 pounds ($250) a year. By today’s standards that would be the equivalent of $16,000.
Particularly interesting is the fact that lighthouse keeping was one of the first U.S. government jobs available to women, but mostly they took over when their spouses or small relatives died or became unable to continue.
SO, HOW WERE THE SAILORS HELPED BY A LIGHTHOUSE?
To begin with, to help the sailors determine their location each lighthouse (geographically close) is painted in different colors and/or designs.
But what about the night, when you can’t really see the design on a lighthouse? At night a group of lights on a rotating framework made it possible to produce a special pattern of light for each lighthouse. Later, the invention of the Fresnel (pronounced “Frey Nel”) lens in 1822 enabled men to produce an unlimited number of flashing combinations and it also intensified the light so it could be seen at greater distances.
The individual flashing pattern of each light is called its characteristic. Sailors often have to look at a light list that tells what light flashes that particular pattern.
Hornby Lighthouse, Robertsons Point Lighthouse, and Macquarie Lighthouse
But… what happens in fog when the light isn’t visible?
“A fallen lighthouse is more dangerous than a reef.” – proverb
In situations like this, there is another method of notifying the mariner, using sound. It is called a foghorn. The first one was, of all things, a cannon, then fog bells, steam whistles, and reed trumpets and sirens. The sounds they gave out were generally low – pitched and very mournful – almost like a wail – I think we can all imagine it. Each one emitted a specific number of blasts every minute so it could be told apart from all others.
“Lighthouses are more helpful than churches.” – Benjamin Franklin
WHAT IS HAPPENING TO LIGHTHOUSES TODAY?
To begging with, increased mechanization and improved technology have made keepers unnecessary. Today, most of the lighthouses have been automated, and the ones who are not are like that for sentimental reasons only.
Also, many of the lighthouses are no longer needed due to advances in technology but it is important to keep them in good condition for future generations to learn about their place in the history and it is also a special experience to be able to climb the stairs just as the keepers did and picture what life was like in times past.
Many enthusiasts yearn to experience the life of a lighthouse keeper. Ohio woman Sheila Consaul paid $71,010 for Lake Erie’s Fairport Harbor West Breakwall Lighthouse in 2011 and has been fixing it up ever since.
There is also a lighthouse in North Carolina which, after being decommissioned, was bought by a private individual and made into a bed and breakfast.
“I can think of no other edifice constructed by man as altruistic as a lighthouse. They were built only to serve.” – George Bernard Shaw
AND SOME FUN FACTS TO FINISH OFF WITH (also known as bonus facts 🙂
The Eilean Mor Lighthouse Mystery is the mystery where all three Lighthouse keepers on a remote island vanished. The logs found to reference a brutal storm that lasted days, even though a neighboring island that had a view of the Lighthouse reported calm weather.
The border between Finland and Sweden crosses through a small island in an unusual way because back in 1885 the Finns accidentally built a lighthouse on the Swedish side of the island.
There is a tradition that dates back to 1929, known as “Flying Santa”, where gifts are dropped from planes to lighthouse keepers across the New England coast.
Ayrton Senna and Alain Prost are among few greatest drivers that ever competed in Formula 1. The only thing that was better than each of them alone is that they spent a few years racing against each other. Today, we’ll talk about the two of them and Formula 1, and also take a look at their stamps.
Formula 1 (Formula 1, F1) is the highest-class racing competition started way back in 1950. It would be pointless to try to stick its’ history in this article, so I won’t even try that. It’s important that we have constructors’ competition as well as drivers’ competition. While machine and design have a significant impact, the driver is the one providing the difference when two machines have similar performance. Two such drivers were Alain Prost and Ayrton Senna.
Ayrton Senna Formula One Motor Racing World Championship Title, 1988
Martin Jacques: “In Formula One, the car can make a difference in a way that a driver cannot. Whereas Michael Schumacher and Ayrton Senna spent their early seasons in second-rate machinery, Hamilton walked into the equal best car on the grid. His first season none the less has, by any standards, been extraordinary.”
Sebastian Vettel: “After 10 weeks away from Formula One, when they started the engine here at Valencia and everything was vibrating, I found myself sitting in the RB7 and smiling.”
Tamara Ecclestone: “Formula One has been the backdrop of my life.”
Bernie Ecclestone: “They say Formula One is a market which it can’t be, obviously. Our market is independent, it’s a sport.”
Ayrton Senna (21 March 1960 – 1 May 1994)
Ayrton Senna da Silva is probably the greatest driver that ever competed in F1. Unfortunately, we won’t be able to prove that because of the accident in Imola at 1994 San Marino Grand Prix. He was active from 1984 till 1994 and during his active years, he managed to start at 161 races, be on the podium for 80 times and 41 times as a winner. He also had 65 pole positions and 19 fastest laps. On top of all of that, he won 3 championship titles – 1988, 1990 & 1991.
The 50th Anniversary of the Birth of Ayrton Senna
Ayrton was where he was because he was eager to win and to take risks in order to achieve it.
“I am not designed to come second or third. I am designed to win.”
“You will never know the feeling of a driver when winning a race. The helmet hides feelings that cannot be understood.”
And not only did he take the risk but he enjoyed the process along the way.
“Racing, competing, it’s in my blood. It’s part of me, it’s part of my life; I have been doing it all my life and it stands out above everything else.”
“The danger sensation is exciting. The challenge is to find new dangers.”
“Fear is exciting for me.”
“I don’t know driving in another way which isn’t risky. Each one has to improve himself. Each driver has its limit. My limit is a little bit further than other’s.”
“I continuously go further and further learning about my own limitations, my body limitation, psychological limitations. It’s a way of life for me.”
Unfortunately, all of that led to his tragic end. It’s always hard to find the balance between being worlds’ #1 and not hurting yourself along the way. While the name of the winner shall be written down in history, nobody will remember thousands of those who gave up everything for success but never accomplished it.
Ayrton Senna Commemoration
“These things bring you to reality as to how fragile you are; at the same moment, you are doing something that nobody else is able to do. The same moment that you are seen as the best, the fastest and somebody that cannot be touched, you are enormously fragile.”
“It’s going to be a season with lots of accidents, and I’ll risk saying that we’ll be lucky if something really serious doesn’t happen.”
“Because in a split second, it’s gone.”
The 20th Anniversary of the Death of Ayrton Senna
Alain Prost (24 February 1955 – )
Alain Marie Pascal Prost was active in F1 from 1980 to 1991 and again in 1993. During that time, he took part in 202 F1 Grand Prix races and won 51 of them. This number of victories held as highest number ever until 2001 when Michael Schumacher won the Belgian Grand Prix. Besides that, he was on the podium 55 more times, had 33 pole positions and 41 fastest laps. And yes, he won 4 Championship titles – 1985, 1986, 1989 & 1993. To this day only 3 drivers have more titles: Michael Schumacher has 7 (his era started in 1994), Juan Manuel Fangio has 5 same as Lewis Hamilton (his era still lasts).
Formula 1 Legends
Jim Clarke, Bruce McLaren,
Sir Stirling Craufurd Moss, Jack Brabham,
Jacky Ickx, Jackie Stewart,
Mario Andretti, Alain Prost
“A German team could be quite good. But maybe they are a little bit too convinced that they are the best.”
“You want to have fun but you also want to work well. Sometimes I was quite happy at Ferrari because we would have fun, but then they could not stop having fun and go back to the real work.”
“I have had some problems because the French don’t like people to have success, they don’t like the number one.”
“When you win a race like this the feeling is very, very good.”
I’ll finish today’s article with 3 more quotes about Ayrton Senna, from 3 important F1 personas:
Fernando Alonso (Two-time F1 World Champion): “I remember I went to school and on my book, I didn’t have pictures of girls, but I had Ayrton there, and the same in my room. I had a big poster of Ayrton and even my first go-karts were in the colours of Ayrton’s McLaren because my father also liked him.”
Lewis Hamilton (Five-time F1 World Champion):“He is an incredible legend. You can still learn things from how he approached racing and how he drove. You like to think that one day you may be recognized as someone that was able to drive similarly to him.”
Bernie Ecclestone (Formula 1 Boss): “The trouble with asking for good memories of Ayrton is that I do not have any bad ones. Perhaps my very vivid memories are of his strong opinion, and most of the time he was right.”
Summer of 1939 was the last one before one of the greatest conflicts in the history – World War II. Today, we’ll take a look at stamps that were issued by the main protagonists of the war, on the eve of destruction. We’ll see stamps before the start of the war and immediately after the start.
World War II – Prelude
The theatre for World War II was ready almost immediately after World War I has ended. Germany lost a lot and suffered additionally during the Great Depression in the early and mid-1930s. That was the perfect round for the emergence of the “strong leader” and we all know the result.
Party Rally Inscription “REICHS PARTEITAG 1939”
Adolf Hitler had a plan to conquer Europe decades ago compared to when World War II truly started. When Nazi Germany started taking offensive actions, leaders of the USSR and West couldn’t agree on how to react. West feared communism and hoped that Nazi Germany would fight their battle, while the USSR planned to leave capitalist countries to fight their own war between them.
Charity Stamps Local Motifs
The United Kingdom repeatedly rejected to sign a pact with USSR and that led to the pact between the USSR and Nazi Germany (the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact). While historians may argue, the idea behind signing this pact (for both sides) was to avoid having front opened with each other (at least for some time). Hitler knew he will invade the USSR and the USSR developed similar plans to push to the West. The pact itself was great for Nazi Germany and the USSR because they split their sphere of influence, or to be precise, they made a deal how to split other countries. Of course, that wasn’t so good for countries that were between Nazi Germany and the USSR.
USSR – 1939/08/01
The 50th Death Anniversary of M.E.Saltykov-Schedrin
On the other hand, the USA wanted to stay neutral and leave others fighting between themselves. The USA had a very developed industry, but the army wasn’t comparable in numbers, training, and equipment to armies fielded by major powers in Europe or even Japan.
USSR – 1939/08/01
All Union Agricultural Fair
So, the situation in 1939 on the international level was very complicated. The war was very close, and common people probably were aware of that, but somehow hoped that wouldn’t actually happen or that they’ll be able to avoid it somehow.
World War II – Aggressive Actions
All that hesitation between (future) allies opened the way for Germany to make some offensive actions even prior to the war. So, before the war, Germany managed to annex the following:
- 1935/03/01 – Territory of the Saar Basin
- 1938/03/13 – Federal State of Austria
- 1938/10/01 – parts of Czechoslovak Republic – Sudetenland, Bohemia & Sudetenland, Moravia-Silesia
- 1939/03/16 – parts of Czechoslovak Republic – Bohemia, & Moravia-Silesia
- 1939/03/03 – Klaipėda Region, Republic of Lithuania.
The United Kingdom wanted to avoid total war at all costs and Nazi Germany used that. One of such events was signing the Munich Agreement (“Peace for our time”) at Munich on 29 September 1938, by Germany, Great Britain, France, and Italy. That document allowed Germany annexation of the German Sudeten territory and showed Germany how weak were other powers at that moment.
UK – 1939
King George VI
There is a well-known video showing prime minister Neville Chamberlain holding the document and giving the victory speech:
“The settlement of the Czechoslovakian problem, which has now been achieved is, in my view, only the prelude to a larger settlement in which all Europe may find peace. This morning I had another talk with the German Chancellor, Herr Hitler, and here is the paper which bears his name upon it as well as mine.”
“My good friends, for the second time in our history, a British Prime Minister has returned from Germany bringing peace with honor. I believe it is peace for our time. We thank you from the bottom of our hearts. Go home and get a nice quiet sleep.”
World War II – The War
Germany tried to find the reason to attack Poland. One of the reasons was that Germany wanted to see the Free City of Danzig / Gdańsk, incorporated into the Reich. Danzig itself had almost 99% German inhabitants and they wanted to reunite with Germany, but that was not possible due to the peace treaty made after the World War I. That reason was more than enough for Germany to attack Poland and start the World War II.
Poland – 1939/08/01
Germany staged a false-flag attack so it could formally say that actions taken were in self-defense. Of course, everything was prepared much earlier and the only questions were when the war will really start. The German battleship Schleswig-Holstein opened fire on the Westerplatte peninsula where the Polish military transport depot was located. That happened around 4:48 am on 1 September 1939 and these were the first shots fired during World War II.
France – 1939/06/23
23rd Anniversary of the Battle of Verdun
For the plan of their offensive action, Nazi Germany used the name “Fall Weiss” (“Plan White”). Poland itself had been surrounded from 3 sides Germany in the West, Nazi-aligned Slovakia to the South, and Prussia on the North and that gave Germany huge advantage. It’s not only easier to wage offensive war, but having your opponent spread in a thin line is one more big advantage.
Poland plan to defend against Germany (Plan Zachód – Plan West) was to endure as much as possible and to wait that France and the UK press Germany in the West. That would spread Nazi forces on two fronts – similarly to what happened in World War I. The Polish put up a great resistance, much better than most of the people think, and inflicted huge losses on German side even to much more technically advanced Luftwaffe (Poles lost 333 aircraft, destroying 285 and damaging 279 more Luftwaffe aircraft during the war). These were mostly forgotten because Germany hasn’t revealed these details in order to keep alive the picture of mighty and unstoppable military force. After 1 month and 5 days of the war, Poland surrendered on October 6, 1939.
World War II was a war without precedent in the history of modern warfare. Today we’ve tried to cover what led to the war. And more important, stamps that were issued in the summer of 1939.
Chinese New Year, also known as the Spring Festival is the most important traditional Chinese holiday that celebrates the beginning of the new year according to the traditional Chinese calendar.
Since this holiday falls on January 25th this year, you’re still not late to celebrate! Why it falls on this date (but not always), how to celebrate, greet and what a rat has to do with all of this?
Keep on reading! And stock up on those firecrackers!
SPRING FESTIVAL IS BASED ON THE TRADITIONAL CHINESE CALENDAR
The traditional Chinese calendar, officially known as the Agricultural Calendar and also as Former Calendar, Traditional Calendar or Lunar Calendar is a lunisolar calendar which reckons years, months and days according to astronomical phenomena. Modern – day China, of course, uses the Gregorian calendar but the traditional calendar governs holidays both in China and in overseas Chinese communities.
China – 2020/01/05
Because the calendar is also known as the Lunar Calendar, the Chinese New Year is also known as the Lunar New Year, especially outside China.
IT IS CELEBRATED FOR 15 DAYS, ENDING WITH A LANTERN FESTIVAL
The first day of Chinese New Year begins on the new moon that appears between 21 January and 20 February and celebrations traditionally take place from the evening preceding the first day of the year to the Lantern Festival, held on the 15th day of the year.
The Lantern Festival or the Spring Lantern Festival is a Chinese festival usually falling in February or early March according to the Gregorian calendar marking the final day of the traditional Chinese New Year celebrations. During the Lantern Festival, children go out at night carrying paper lanterns and solve riddles on them.
Hong Kong – 2020/01/11
Dragon and lion dances, walking on stills and solving riddles are all very common during this festive period. It is believed that the loud beats of the drum, the deafening sounds of the cymbals, the face of the dragon or lion and dancing aggressively can evict bad or evil spirits – and this is what this celebration is about!
ORIGINS, MYTHS AND FIRECRACKERS – OR HOW TO FIGHT DEMONS AND BAD LUCK OFF
The Spring Festival was originally a ceremonial day to pray to gods for a good planting and harvest season. But the myths are, of course, much more interesting and in time took over. They mostly revolve around scaring off demons or bad luck, and attracting good luck.
Hong Kong – 2020/01/11
According to one legend, there was a monster named Nian who would come about every New Year’s Eve. Most people would hide in their homes but one boy was brave enough to fight him off using firecrackers. The next day, people celebrated their survival by setting off even more firecrackers. And that practice became a crucial part of the Spring Festival.
Hong Kong – 2020/01/11
Nowadays, before going to sleep, it is a custom to shoot firecrackers to scare off monsters and bad luck. In the morning, firecrackers are used again to welcome the new year and good luck. Due to many injuries and injuries and fatal consequences, it is prohibited or restricted in some areas.
SO, HOW TO CELEBRATE APPART FROM FIRECRACKERS? BY GATHERING WITH LOVED ONES AND EATING DELICIOUS FOOD.
On Chinese New Year, it is a tradition to reconcile, to forget all the bad and to wish everyone peace and happiness.
How the Chinese celebrate this holiday is how most people everywhere celebrate most holidays. Most people will travel home in days leading up to the New Year – this period is called chunyun, and is known as the world’s largest annual migration.
In some places, the taking of a family portrait is an important ceremony after the relatives are gathered. The photo is taken at the hall of the house or taken in front of the house. The most senior male head of the family sits in the center.
Taiwan (Republic of China) – 2019/12/03
On New Year’s Eve, the family gathers around the festive table. Most often they will eat pork, duck, chicken and sweets and fruit. Also, they eat dumplings for every meal, every day. Well, technically they’re supposed to, but I guess there can be too much even of the good stuff, so most people will eat dumplings during the New Year’s Eve dinner.
So far, sounds mostly familiar. But wait.
ALSO, IT IS CELEBRATED BY CLEANING AND NOT SHOWERING
Before the feast begins, the tradition is for the whole family to clean and tidy up the house together to sweep the bad luck away and make room for the good. That’s very important since showering isn’t allowed on New Year’s Day and sweeping and throwing out garbage isn’t allowed before the 5th. This is to make sure you don’t wash away the good luck!
DECORATING IN RED AND GIVING OUT RED ENVELOPES
So, everything’s clean and tidy, the entire family is here, delicious meals are served, and how is everything decorated? In red!
Red paper decorations with themes of happiness, health and well-being are put on the windows and doors. Red is a dominant colour, symbolizing happiness, virtue, truth and sincerity in China so it can be found everywhere – people even wear red to scare off bad luck (but then again, it’s costumery to wear red during New Year’s celebrations in the west too – to attract love).
In the morning, children and youth will also greet their parents and elderly and wish them a happy new year to receive cash in red paper envelopes as a gift. Per custom, the amount of money in the red packets should be of even numbers, as odd numbers are associated with cash given during funerals. Numbers 8 and 6 are considered lucky so those amounts are often found in the envelopes. Sometimes chocolate coins are found in the red packet.
YOU DON’T WANT TO BE RUDE, SO HOW TO GREET?
The Chinese New Year is often accompanied by loud, enthusiastic greetings. The most commonly used are –
Xin nian kuai le, a more contemporary greeting reflective of Western influences, it literally translates from the greeting “Happy new year” and is more common in the west.
Gong hey fat choi which loosely translates to “Congratulations and be prosperous”.
EACH NEW YEAR IS RULED BY A DIFFERENT ZODIAC ANIMAL
Western horoscopes include 12 zodiac signs, one for each month. There are 12 Chinese zodiacs as well, but the animal rules the entire year. The signs are: Rat, Ox, Tiger, Rabbit, Dragon, Snake, Horse, Goat, Monkey, Rooster, Dog and Pig. 2020 is the year of the rat!
New Zealand – 2019/12/04
But unlike western astrology, where the month of your sign is considered lucky, the year of your zodiac animal is the unluckiest for you, so all you rats out there – beware! During this year, your weapon of defense is the color red, mainly on clothing. Many rat – people will wear red underwear every day of the year.
SPRING FESTIVAL IS YOUR SECOND BIRTHDAY
In China, you have “real” age and nominal age. Real age is the one we all know about – you grow one year older on your birthday. The nominal age though, increases with the Spring Festival.
This was the age most people went with until recent times, but it’s still common nowadays or used interchangeably. So, make sure you ask!
Macau – 2020/01/05
AND IT IS PROTECTED AS THE WORLD HERITAGE
The Qiang People’s New Year Celebration Festival was listed as an Intangible World Heritage Site in Asia and Oceania in 2009 and knowing all this information and rich history behind it – we understand why!
So, Gong hey fat choi, Happy birthday, and may all of your envelopes be red!
And, if you’re a rat, then underwear too 😀
Nikola Tesla was born on July 10, 1856, in Smiljan, Austrian Empire, and died on January 7, 1943, in New York, United States. Without a doubt, he was one of the greatest minds in the history of Mankind.
Early Years and Education
Nikola was born in Smiljan (a village 7 kilometers northwest of Gospić, a town in Lika county – today’s Croatia) as the fourth of five children (sisters Mika, Angelina and Marica and brother Dane) in the family of Milutin and Đuka. While his father Milutin was an Eastern Orthodox priest, his mother Đuka never received a formal education. Still, she was a remarkable woman with an eidetic memory. That enabled her to remember Serbian epic poems and she also had a talent for making mechanical crafts.
PTT (Post Telegraph Telephone, Yugoslavia). All Rights Reserved.
Denomination: 40000 Dinars
Nikola was educated in German because Lika was a part of an Austrian frontier. He completed primary school in Smiljan and Gospić, and later middle school in Karlovac. During his middle school education, he met with electricity. His physics professor used it in experiments of classes and that probably directed his whole life (just remember that when you’re teaching, maybe you have some new Nikola sitting in classes). In 1875 he started his studies at the Austrian Polytechnic in Graz, Austria. He was a remarkable student until he started gambling and never finished his studies.
AC / DC – While Edison work and research was based on the DC (direct current), Tesla was focused on AC (alternate current). He proved that AC is less costly and safer and the result of his work is today everywhere around us. On the other hand, Edison electrocuted animals using AC to prove how dangerous it is, so Edison gave us an electric chair 😊
Remote Control – In 1898, at the Electrical Exhibition, in New York’s Madison Square Garden, Tesla used radio-waves to navigate a 4-foot-long miniature ship remotely. He controlled propeller, rudder, and scaled-down running lights. Needless to say, it looked like magic these days.
PTT (Post Telegraph Telephone, Yugoslavia). All Rights Reserved.
FDC – The 100th Anniversary of the Birth of Nikola Tesla (1856-1943)
Denomination: 10 (induction motor), 15 (Tesla coil), 30 (telecommand) and 50 (Nikola Tesla) Dinars
Tesla’s AC Induction Motor is sometimes placed into the category of the 10 greatest discoveries of all times. If you ask yourself “why”, just look around yourself. These days, we can also look at car engines also.
“Electrical science has disclosed to us the more intimate relation existing between widely different forces and phenomena and has thus led us to a more complete comprehension of Nature and its many manifestations to our senses.”
The radio – Usually Guglielmo Marconi is credited as the inventor of the radio and that really was the case until 1943 when the Supreme Court overturned Marconi’s patent as it was proven Tesla invented radio a few years earlier. Marconi initially got the patent because, probably, he had stronger financial backers at that time.
Македонска Пошта (Macedonia Post). All Rights Reserved.
The 150th Anniversary of the Birth of Nikola Tesla
Denomination: 24 Macedonian Dinars
Some other (claimed) inventions Tesla is related to are: the Death Ray, robotics, X-rays, wireless energy transfer, limitless free energy, and many others. And of course, all his work on the Wardenclyffe Tower. Some of them were concepts, some lost during the time. We’ll probably never know if some of them truly ever existed, were they hidden in archives for being too powerful or simply just in the way of the current economic system.
Hobbies, Activities, Hotel Rooms and Sex Life
Although you’ll find that Nikola had no hobbies, he actually loved gambling and playing cards, especially during his studies and playing billiards later.
“The human being is a self-propelled automaton entirely under the control of external influences. Willful and predetermined though they appear, his actions are governed not from within, but from without. He is like a float tossed about by the waves of a turbulent sea.”
Bosnia and Herzegovina – Republic of Srpska Post. All Rights Reserved.
The 150th Anniversary of the Birth of Nikola Tesla
Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2006/07/10
Denomination: 1.50 BAM
His sex life was also one of these irrelevant things people usually asked about him – was he gay or not. If he was gay, it’s hard he would even go out with that statement. Still, there is a greater chance he was completely asexual because he simply didn’t have any time for relationships. This was his answer to the question about marriage:
“For an artist, yes; for a musician, yes; for a writer, yes; but for an inventor, no. The first three must gain inspiration from a woman’s influence and be led by their love to finer achievement, but an inventor has so intense a nature with so much in it of wild, passionate quality, that in giving himself to a woman he might love, he would give everything, and so take everything from his chosen field. . . . It’s a pity, too, for sometimes we feel so lonely.”
“I do not think you can name many great inventions that have been made by married men.”
Hrvatska pošta (Croatia Post). All Rights Reserved.
The 150th Anniversary of the Birth of Nikola Tesla
Denomination: 3.50 HRK
He spent a lot of the time in hotel rooms with Room 3327 in the Hotel New Yorker being the most famous one. He spent 10 years there (actually in rooms number 3327 and 3328), from 1933 to 1943 and he actually died in Room 3327. That was also the place where his scientific papers (including the Death Ray) were kept in a safe. Papers disappeared after his death, never to be found again.
“If we want to reduce poverty and misery, if we want to give to every deserving individual what is needed for a safe existence of an intelligent being, we want to provide more machinery, more power. Power is our mainstay, the primary source of our many-sided energies.”
Few More Quotes from Nikola Tesla
Let’s conclude today’s article with few quotes from Nikola:
“The history of science shows that theories are perishable. With every new truth that is revealed, we get a better understanding of Nature and our conceptions and views are modified.”
“Every living being is an engine geared to the wheelwork of the universe. Though seemingly affected only by its immediate surrounding, the sphere of external influence extends to an infinite distance.”
“Let the future tell the truth and evaluate each one according to his work and accomplishments. The present is theirs; the future, for which I have really worked, is mine.”
“In a time not distant, it will be possible to flash any image formed in thought on a screen and render it visible at any place desired. The perfection of this means of reading thought will create a revolution for the better in all our social relations.”
“The feeling is constantly growing on me that I had been the first to hear the greeting of one planet to another.”
“We wind a simple ring of iron with coils; we establish the connections to the generator, and with wonder and delight we note the effects of strange forces which we bring into play, which allow us to transform, to transmit and direct energy at will.”